Important Role of former Nazis in Eastern Germany." 

November 21, 1950
Central Files Decimal Number 762B.00

Occupation and Independence: the Austrian Second Republic, 1945-1963

Diplomatic records illustrate a turbulent era as Nazi rule gave way to statehood and long-lasting neutrality.

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Date Range: 1945-1963
Content: 84,972 pages
Source Library: U.S. National Archives


The experience of the Anschluss and Nazi rule deepened the commitment of Austrians to parliamentary democracy and Austrian statehood. The electorate remained divided into three political camps—socialist/Marxist, Catholic and nationalist/liberal—but cooperation replaced extreme political polarization.

On April 27, 1945, the provisional government issued a decree nullifying the Anschluss and reestablishing an independent, democratic Republic of Austria. The country was occupied by the Allies on May 9, 1945. Under the Allied Commission for Austria, established by an agreement on July 4, 1945, Austria was divided into zones managed by American, British, French and Soviet Army personnel.

FOR MORE INFORMATION, download a Product Fact Sheet [pdf, 310 KB]

Occupation and Independence: The Austrian Second Republic, 1945-1963 offers researchers a wide-ranging account of how two political parties strove toward ending Allied occupation and restoring a fully independent Austria.

Scholars of military history, government and diplomacy can follow how the Austrian State Treaty proclaimed Austria a neutral country, and how long-lasting neutrality was incorporated into the Constitution – though Austrian sympathies lay with the Western democracies.

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